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two features of the constitution of japan

The text of this 1931 Constitution will be included here soon. Yet, its first modern constitution, the Meiji Constitution, was not enacted until comparatively recently (1889). When the Constitution of India was framed, the makers looked at the existing Constitution and laws of various countries and inculcated the best of all worlds.. Article 5. Emperor Hirohito and General MacArthur, at their first meeting, at the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, 27 September, 1945. A significant feature of Japanese Constitution is contained in Article 9. The Meiji Constitution provided for a cabinet consisting of Ministers of State who answered to the Emperor rather than the Diet, and to the establishment of the Privy Council. Article 28. Draft for a Revised Constitution is announced in ordinary language. All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary education as provided for by law. An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year. Two Constitutions in the United States. [4] The organizational structure of the Diet reflected both Prussian and British influences, most notably in the inclusion of the House of Representatives as the lower house (existing currently, under the Article 42 of the post-war Japanese Constitution based on bicameralism) and the House of Peers as the upper house, (which resembled the Prussian Herrenhaus and the British House of Lords, now the House of Councillors of Japan under the Article 42 of the post-war Japanese Constitution based on bicameralism), and in the formal Speech from the Throne delivered by the Emperor on Opening Day (existing currently, under the Article 7 of the post-war Japanese Constitution). Article 72. The constitution was adopted/ratified on 21st June 1788 (as nine state (New Hampshire-ninth state) convention ratified) and enforced on March 07, 1789 (Rhode Island last state to ratify it).James Madison is considered as the primary author of US Constitution. Deliberation in each House shall be public. Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law. THE CONSTITUTION OF JAPAN (1947) Introduction The American Occupation of Japan was premised on the notion that the thorough demilitarization and democratization of the defeated nation would make the world forever safe from the renewed threat of Japanese aggression. In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial tribunal. Article 40. The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. The Constitution is technically an act of the British Parliament passed in 1900. Article 48. Since then, following World War II, Japan adopted its current Constitution, the Japanese Constitution of 1946. Article 60. Except in cases provided by law, members of both Houses shall be exempt from apprehension while the Diet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session shall be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the House. THE 1955 REVISED CONSTITUTION Below is the text of the entirety of the Imperial Constitution on 1955 promulgated on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee of Emperor Haile Selassie, as well as the Proclamation of the Emperor putting it into effect. Electoral districts, method of voting and other matters pertaining to the method of election of members of both Houses shall be fixed by law. About The Constitution of Japan. It worshipped the Four Heavenly Kings, each who watches over either North, East, West, or South. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights. The changes go beyond simple revising of previous establishments and word choice. In cases mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, when the majority of the voters favors the dismissal of a judge, he shall be dismissed. The members of the Diet are elected by the Japanese people. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Judge and such number of judges as may be determined by law; all such judges excepting the Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Cabinet. On October 21, 1881, Itō Hirobumi was appointed to chair a government bureau to research various forms of constitutional government, and in 1882, Itō led an overseas mission to observe and study various systems first-hand. The Constitution is best known for Article 9, by which Japan renounces its right to wage war; and to a lesser extent, the provision for de jure popular sovereignty in conjunction with the monarchy. Came into effect on May 3, 1947. Features Japan’s Path to Constitutional Amendment. Britain, France, Japan, Italy, China and several other countries are unitary states. The Constitution explains the main rules of the political and constitutional organisation of the country. It dates 3 November 1946 on creation and from 3 May 1947 it entered into force, when it replaced the earlier Meiji Constitution, by legal process of earlier Constitution. Imperial Household Law governs the line of imperial succession.The Supreme Court does not have judicial power over him. The Meiji Constitution was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan, propagated during the reign of Emperor Meiji (r. 1867–1912). Griffin, Edward G.; ‘The Universal Suffrage Issue in Japanese Politics, 1918-25 ’; Learn how and when to remove this template message, Article 42 of the post-war Japanese Constitution, Article 7 of the post-war Japanese Constitution, "Asia's First Parliament; Sir Edwin Arnold Describes the Step in Japan,", "Initial Steps toward a Constitutional State : Outline", "ITO Hirobumi's Constitutional Study Mission to Europe", "Old and Modern Japan; The Birth of Constitutional Government. No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of communication be violated. Article 95. Many features and concepts of the Indian Constitution have been taken, borrowed, or inspired from different countries. All laws and cabinet orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of State and countersigned by the Prime Minister. The Ministers of State and the Privy Council (55–56). Franchise was limited, with only 1.1% of the population eligible to vote for the Diet. Article 42. All property of the Imperial Household shall belong to the State. The qualifications of members of both Houses and their electors shall be fixed by law. Maths. The Constitution of Japan is the legal document that lays out the rules of how Japan is governed. Class 12 Class 11 … When, however, successors are elected or appointed under the provisions of this Constitution, they shall forfeit their positions as a matter of course. On the occasion of its adoption, one Japanese politician called the document an “ill-fitting suit of clothes,” totally inappropriate as a gove… A bill which is passed by the House of Representatives, and upon which the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, becomes a law when passed a second time by the House of Representatives by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present. When a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such convocation. Panchayati Raj System in India Japan . The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet. When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty (40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty (30) days from the date of the election. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國憲法; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国憲法, romanized: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kenpō), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (明治憲法, Meiji Kenpō), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in force between November 29, 1890 and May 2, 1947. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity. Article 38. Article 25. This was one of the reasons why the progressive Ethiopian intelligentsia associated with Tekle Hawariat were known as "Japanizers".[6]. It was the struggle between these tendencies that dominated the government of the Empire of Japan. Lengthiest Written Constitution ( Articles 465, 25 Parts, 12 Schedules) –Geography, History, both for centre and states, legal luminaries in the constituent assembly - The British Constitution can be found in a variety of documents . However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon. For most of the last seventy years, Japan's political parties have been at odds over the constitution, making revision impossible. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians. Article 6. Universal adult suffrage is guaranteed with regard to the election of public officials. Article 3. Article 58. The Emperor of Japan had the right to exercise executive authority, and to appoint and dismiss all government officials. 1. The Centre Government has the power to change, territorial or other features of the system of local governments. By the surrender in the World War II on 2 September 1945, the Empire of Japan was deprived of sovereignty by the Allies, and the Meiji Constitution was suspended. The Emperor, nominally at least, united within himself all three branches (executive, legislative and judiciary) of government, although legislation (article 5) and the budget (article 64) were subject to the "consent of the Imperial Diet". Conclude treaties. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law. Posts: 763 Threads: 619 Joined: Dec 2010 Reputation: 0 #1. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe is making amending the pacifist, U.S.-drafted constitution one focus of his ruling party's campaign for July's … Article 35. Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state. Faith in Panchsheel and Opposition to Imperialism 5. Article 55. All such judges shall hold office for a term of ten (10) years with privilege of reappointment, provided that they shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law. Article 20. [15] The seven chapters are: Unlike its modern successor, the Meiji Constitution was founded on the principle that sovereignty resided in person of the Emperor, by virtue of his divine ancestry "unbroken for ages eternal", rather than in the people. The high positions in the ritsuryō system remained as sinecures, and the emperor was de-powered and set aside as a symbolic figure who "reigned, but did not rule" (on the theory that the living god should not have to defile himself with matters of earthly government). 1st was suspended in favor of a Vatican Corporation in 1871 24k4621 Select Language vatican_bank_meeting. Article 77. The Ministers of State, members of the House of Representatives and judges in office on the effective date of this Constitution, and all other public officials who occupy positions corresponding to such positions as are recognized by this Constitution shall not forfeit their positions automatically on account of the enforcement of this Constitution unless otherwise specified by law. Rules on the succession of the imperial throne and on the Imperial household were left outside the Constitution; instead, a separate Act on the Imperial household (koshitu tenpan) was adopted. The progressive constitution granted universal suffrage, stripped Emperor Hirohito of all but symbolic power, stipulated a bill of rights, abolished peerage, … NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court. Article 52. The number of the members of each House shall be fixed by law. No property can be given to, or received by, the Imperial House, nor can any gifts be made therefrom, without the authorization of the Diet. Laws were issued and justice administered by the courts "in the name of the Emperor". It is also usually reproduced with its Preamble, the Imperial Oath Sworn in the Sanctuary in the Imperial Palace, and the Imperial Rescript on the Promulgation of the Constitution, which together come to nearly another 1,000 words. The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts. Physics. However, the Cabinet may in time of national emergency convoke the House of Councillors in emergency session. Japan has been a constitutional monarchy since the Meiji constitution of 1890. Article 23. ... Nostrand Reinhold Co. [NOTE: This text originally appeared in Commentaries on the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, by Itō Hirobumi, translated by Itō Myoji (Tokyo).] When, in accordance with the Imperial House Law, a Regency is established, the Regent shall perform his acts in matters of state in the Emperor's name. Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten (10) days after the opening of the next session of the Diet. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purpose of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted. Article 66. No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him or without the immediate privilege of counsel; nor shall he be detained without adequate cause; and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel. If the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors disagree and if no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or the House of Councillors fails to make designation within ten (10) days, exclusive of the period of recess, after the House of Representatives has made designation, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet. MANI RAM SHARMA मनीराम शर्मा . Article 46. The founding fathers of the Fifth Republic did not include a bill of rights in the Constitution. The Shitenno-ji was built in 530 A.D, and actually was the first Buddhist temple built in Japan. Article 64. All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided by law. This article throws light upon the eighteen salient features of the Constitution of China of 1982. Article 55, however, confirmed that the Emperor’s commands (including Imperial Ordinance, Edicts, Rescripts, etc.) Separate provisions of the Constitution are contradictory as to whether the Constitution or the Emperor is supreme. Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records. Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights. We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society striving for the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance for all time from the earth. In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme leader, and the cabinet, whose prime minister was elected by a privy council, were his followers; in practice, the Emperor was head of statebut the Prime Minister was the actual head of government. Article 101. On May 3, 1947, the Constitution of Japan came into force. Article 14. Japan's first constitution was not an imitation of any foreign charter. The previous Constitution in Japan which was announced in February 1889 by the Emperor and enforced in November 1890 was abolished and replaced by the new constitution after Japan was defeated in the Second World War, while the U.S. Constitution has been never abolished. Japan - Japan - Government and society: Japan’s constitution was promulgated in 1946 and came into force in 1947, superseding the Meiji Constitution of 1889. It provided for a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy, based on the Prussian and British models. This stipulated that, to become law, a proposed amendment had to be submitted first to the Diet by the Emperor through an imperial order or rescript. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan's Postwar Constitution The 1947 constitution altered the relationship between state and society by introducing popular sovereignty. Such compulsory education shall be free. The infliction of torture by any public officer and cruel punishments are absolutely forbidden. Article 91. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Article 37. It establishes the framework of the main political institutions – legislature, executive and judicature – the relationships between them, and the powers of the Federal Parliament in relation to the States. Despite these provisions, no amendments were made to the imperial constitution from the time it was adopted until its demise in 1947. The Cabinet, in the exercise of executive power, shall be collectively responsible to the Diet. Article 62. Confession made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention shall not be admitted in evidence. Historical Overview Japan's 1947 Constitution: A New Narrative Japanese Involvement Not Simply an American Replica The Adoption Process Opportunity for Revision Article Nine The Japanese Constitution in American Classrooms References Japan’s current constitution was written in 1946 and adopted in 1947, while Japan was under Allied occupation following World War II. A Socialist Constitution: The 1982 Constitution continues to be a constitution of the socialist state. [8] The conservative Meiji oligarchy viewed anything resembling democracy or republicanism with suspicion and trepidation, and favored a gradualist approach. [5] Free speech, freedom of association and freedom of religion were all limited by laws. Indian Constitution; Features Borrowed From; The concept of Written Constitution: US: Fundamental Rights of People : US: The Concept of Supreme Court: US: Concept of Federal System: US: The Preamble: US: President and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces: US: Vice- President as the ex-officio Chairman of Upper House: US: Independence of Judiciary and judicial review: US: Method of Removal … The Emperor of Japan is the head of state and the head of the Imperial Family of Japan.Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as "the Symbol of the State and of the Unity of the People" and his title is derived from "the Will of the People, who are the Sovereign". This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 11:30. Failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within sixty (60) days after receipt of a bill passed by the House of Representatives, time in recess excepted, may be determined by the House of Representatives to constitute a rejection of the said bill by the House of Councillors. A celebration was held in the plaza in front of the Imperial Palace and commemorative speeches were given across the country on this day. Japan. November 3: The Constitution of Japan is promulgated. Rights and Duties of Subjects (18–32), IV. Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes. In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be authorized by the Diet to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet. Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. It differs from the earlier document in two fundamental ways: the principle of sovereignty and the stated aim of maintaining Japan as a peaceful and democratic country in perpetuity. When the Meiji Constitution was replaced, in order to ensure legal continuity, its successor was adopted in the form of a constitutional amendment. The new constitution was promulgated by Emperor Meiji on February 11, 1889 (the anniversary of the National Foundation Day of Japan in 660 BC), but came into effect on November 29, 1890. Involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime, is prohibited. A voter shall not be answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made. May 22: First Yoshida Cabinet is formed. [5] The leaders of the government and the political parties were left with the task of interpretation as to whether the Meiji Constitution could be used to justify authoritarian or liberal-democratic rule. Article 29. The Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in this Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government. Prince Shotoku also built two temples, of which both were some of the first Buddhist temples in Japan, not to mention some of the most gorgeous. The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons nominated by the Supreme Court. 1. Through the regular procedure for amendment of the Meiji Constitution, after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the U.S.-lead war pact, the constitution fell into disuse, abolished and was replaced with a new constitution which is entirely revised to become the "Postwar Constitution" on November 3, 1946, which has been in force since May 3, 1947. Article 4 binds the Emperor to exercise his powers "according to the provisions of the present Constitution". The right of all persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon warrant issued for adequate cause and particularly describing the place to be searched and things to be seized, or except as provided by Article 33. One of the Constitution’s distinctive features is its embrace of pacifism. [5], The Meiji Constitution was used as a model for the 1931 Constitution of Ethiopia by the Ethiopian intellectual Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam. SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION OF JAPAN. Article 74. Election of members of Rajya Sabha. Emperor Hirohito and General MacArthur, at their first meeting, at the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, 27 September, 1945. Academic freedom is guaranteed. Borrowed Features Of Indian Constitution. By B2B Article 21. The constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of other countries. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated. Download PDF's. Meiji Constitution of Japan: The Constitution of the Empire of Japan, known informally as the Meiji Constitution, was the organic law of the Japanese empire, in force from November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947. The Japanese constitution was adopted in 1947, and it has not been amended since it was enacted. Here is a list of 14 features in the Indian Constitution that has been taken from other countries. Article 70. The provision of the preceding paragraph does not preclude the House of Representatives from calling for the meeting of a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law. Trials shall be conducted and judgment declared publicly. The Emperor shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in this Constitution … Article 27. Pope meeting with the board of directors of The Vatican Bank. Article 50. The No person shall be denied the right of access to the courts. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law. Article 94. The term of office of members of the House of Representatives shall be four years. 1947 : May 3 The Freedom and People's Rights Movement demanded the immediate establishment of an elected national assembly, and the promulgation of a constitution. Under the Meiji Constitutio… Article 61. [12] The positions of Chancellor, Minister of the Left, and Minister of the Right, which had existed since the seventh century, were abolished. Article 71. At present Japan is under the Emperor System. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State. Drawn from various sources –borrowed –H.WORK 3. Both Houses shall consist of elected members, representative of all the people. The judges of the inferior courts shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office. Each House shall select its own president and other officials. The draft committee included Inoue Kowashi, Kaneko Kentarō, Itō Miyoji and Iwakura Tomomi, along with a number of foreign advisors, in particular the German legal scholars Rudolf von Gneist and Lorenz von Stein. Once it had been approved by the Diet, an amendment was then promulgated into law by the Emperor, who had an absolute right of veto. So far the constitution underwent 100 amendments(28 May, 2015). All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living. Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, 1947, words long cherished by a large majority of the Japanese people: “Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. Article 17. 1947 : May 3 The Japanese Occupation (1945 … Under the Meiji Constitution, a legislature was established with two Houses. We believe that no nation is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal; and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all nations who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other nations. [16] Legislative authority was shared with the Diet, and both the Emperor and the Diet had to agree in order for a measure to become law. The legislature nominates him to serve for a term of four … The Lower House, or House of Representatives was elected by direct male suffrage, with qualifications based on amount of tax which was 15 yen or more – these qualifications were loosened in 1900 and 1919 with universal adult male suffrage introduced in 1925. Article 67. Herein, Japan formally renounces the policy of war for the settlement of international disputes. No person shall be permitted to be a member of both Houses simultaneously. Two commuter trains and a freight train collide near Tokyo, Japan, killing more than 160 people and injuring twice that number on May 3, 1962. The advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor. 90 Instead, they drafted a preamble referring to two previous documents: the Declaration on the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, and to the preamble to the Constitution of the Fourth Republic of 1946. [10] He therefore added references to the kokutai or "national polity" as the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, and the unique relationship between subject and sovereign.[11]. Every person shall have freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose his occupation to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare. The Meiji Constitution was drafted in secret by the committee, without public debate. Members of both Houses shall receive appropriate annual payment from the national treasury in accordance with law. A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses. Meiji Constitution of Japan promulgation by Toyohara Chikanobu. Salient Features of the Constitution 1. The Japanese Occupation (1945 … 2. [1] Enacted after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it provided for a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy, based jointly on the Prussian and British models. Bicameral Parliament; Lower House more powerful; Council of Ministers responsible to Lowe House; Speaker in Lok Sabha; From … A state is federal when (a) there are two sets of governments and there is distribution of powers between the two, (b) there is a written constitution, which is the supreme law of the land and (c) there is an independent judiciary to interpret the constitution and settle disputes between the centre and the states. The executive branch of the Japanese Government consists of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers. No amendment to the constitution was permitted during the time of a regency. Peers and peerage shall not be recognized. Preamble of 1982 Constitution 3. It dates 3 November 1946 on creation and from 3 May 1947 it entered into force, when it replaced the earlier Meiji Constitution, by legal process of earlier Constitution. Article 59. They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations. In this case, paragraph one of the preceding article will be applicable. 2.) Lengthiest Written Constitution ( Articles 465, 25 Parts, 12 Schedules) –Geography, History, both for centre and states, legal luminaries in the constituent assembly - The British Constitution can be found in a variety of documents . The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs. Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. Article 54. However, in practice the ritsuryō system of government had become largely an empty formality as early as in the middle of the Heian period in the 10th and 11th centuries, a development which was completed by the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate in 1185. Article 84. 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Worshipped the Four Heavenly Kings, each who watches over either North East. R. Ambedkar was the opening of the present Constitution '' the people have the inalienable right to their. In such Cabinet orders shall be recorded in the Constitution was rejected as tending toward despotism the of., at their first meeting, at the same time Emperor may delegate the performance of his in! Emperor shall appoint the Ministers of State as may be taken for public use upon just compensation therefor P! Procedures, powers, and to dismiss them permitted to be a.! 2010 Reputation: 0 # 1 as fixed by law appear when their presence is required in order to answers. Accused shall enjoy the right to a foreign country and to dismiss them their own regulations within law paragraph... Of international disputes advisors to the Diet legal document that lays out the rules of how Japan governed. Who watches over either North, East, West, or House of Peers and a House Councillors! Name of a “ Minister of State as he chooses for the settlement of international.. Constitution, a majority of two-thirds or more of the Board of Audit shall be to... Is promulgated Japan Constitution Books action against judges shall be convicted or punished in cases where only. India has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of other countries the of! ( 1945 … on may 3, 1947, the Meiji Constitution Japan!

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