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electron donor molecules

Apart from the type of substrate, the loading rate also plays a significant role in depicting the performance of MECs. to access the full features of the site or access our, Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China, Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page. In the present day biosphere, the most common electron donors are organic molecules. Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences atoms and functional groups are compared in the context of electron-donor-acceptor-complexes. In the presence of organic electron donors and thiosulphate or sulphite, SRB may first break down the thiosulphate or sulphite compounds to sulphate (equations 2 and 3) and then oxidize the organic substrates with the newly formed sulphate (Widdel, 1988): These disproportionation reactions can provide energy for cell synthesis (Bak and Pfennig, 1987; Brock and Madigan, 1991). Chemical structures of common small molecules used in vacuum processing. The mitochondrion Formation of the electron donors NADH and FADH 2. In fact, some SRB prefer thiosulphate to sulphate. Electron Donor Electron donors are oxidized by VB holes enhancing photocatalytic electron/hole separation (Reaction (20.9)), avoiding the e−/h+ recombination (Reactions (20.10) and (20.11)). Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. The addition of Lewis acids to certain comonomers also leads to spontaneous polymerization in certain systems. Electron donors are ions or molecules that donate electrons and are reducing agents. We simply need to follow the electron flow from one species to another. While the question of spontaneity in radical initiated systems remains unresolved, there is no doubt about the spontaneous nature of copolymerizations which occur via zwitterion intermediates. with the reproduced material. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Go to our Figure 30. –3.5 E … Organisms that use organic molecules as an energy source are called organotrophs. "Reproduced from" can be substituted with "Adapted from". The prescribed preparation involves two highly innovative and significant reactions which are performed sequentially on the same catalyst system, viz. From: Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production, 2015 it in a third party non-RSC publication you must to reproduce figures, diagrams etc. or in a thesis or dissertation provided that the correct acknowledgement is given Please enable JavaScript The structrual relaxations and total energy calculations are performed to … It is emphasised that the development of this class of catalysts represented an important stage in catalyst development. If you are the author of this article you still need to obtain permission to reproduce There are many types of chemical bonds and forces that bind molecules together. The two most basic types of bonds are characterized as either ionic or covalent. Cowie, in Comprehensive Polymer Science and Supplements, 1989. Lately, the so-called D–A approach, in which alternating donor and acceptor moieties form the polymer backbone, is receiving much attention (Havinga et al., 1992; Roncali, 2007), an approach similar to the one used for small molecules. Almost any organic substrate can be employed in MECs ranging from simple carbohydrates to complex fermentable substrates such as biomass and wastewater [36]. … Intermolecular electron donor–donor interactions are present, but the intermolecular electron donor–acceptor interactions do not exist within the crystal. Comparison of the absorption coefficients of the most common organic donor and acceptor materials and the standard AM1.5g solar spectrum. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, American Chemical Society, 2013, 117 (5), pp.2411-2420. A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character. In vivo imaging studies suggested that MCAAD-3 could penetrate the blood–brain barrier and label Aβ plaques in the brains of transgenic mice. In slurry type polymerizations these catalysts produce polymer particles with very good particle size distribution and shape characteristics due to the rapid disintegration of the catalyst matrix on treatment with AlEt2Cl and monomer. Theoretical Study of the Interaction of Electron Donor and Acceptor Molecules with Graphene. Thus, choosing the suitable substrate is essential for determining the final fate of hydrogen yields obtained in MECs. It is assumed that sulphate would not be a limiting factor for sulphide production in most wastewaters at concentrations greater than 20 mg/l (EPA, 1974). E-mail: The behaviour of catalysts of this type have been analyzed by Nielson.47 A selection of catalysts is listed in Table 2. In a π-donor ligand, the SALCs of the ligands are occupied, hence it donates the electrons to the molecular σ σ* and π π* orbitals. If you are the author of this article you do not need to formally request permission A novel class of near-infrared molecules based on the donor–acceptor architecture were synthesized and evaluated as Aβ imaging probes. In ionic bonding, atoms transfer electrons to each other. Abstract. The atoms and molecules used as ligands are almost always those that are capable of functioning as the electron-pair donor in the electron-pair bond (a coordinate covalent bond) formed with the metal atom. It was observed that acetate as substrate gives higher hydrogen yields and high conversion efficiencies as compared with glucose [5]. In other words, an organic chemical serves as the initial electron donor. For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books: For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals. Organic photovoltaic material has two molecular components, shown here in blue and yellow. Selected Metal Alkyl Reduced Catalysts — Donor Treated, Oliver J. Hao, in Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology, 2003. Ligand, in chemistry, any atom or molecule attached to a central atom, usually a metallic element, in a coordination or complex compound. Hydrogen gas (H2) is a good electron donor. A recent study by Nagai et al.123 on the spontaneous copolymerization of S and α-chloromaleic anhydride suggests that initiation occurs through the radicals resulting from charge-transfer complex formation. contained in this article in third party publications This may take some time to load. 13 Chemoorganotrophy . ACES and University of Wollongong (UOW) PhD student Inseong Cho’s recent work on electron transfer has been published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Sulfur dioxide is a strong electron donor and has been observed to react spontaneously with bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene to produce a copolymer, as shown in equation (82). Controlling electron transfer in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules using cross-conjugated bridges Annie Butler Ricks, Gemma C. Solomon, Michael T. Colvin, Amy M. Scott, Kun Chen, Mark A. Synthesis of these fluorophores (II-X-TPA) resulted in four symmetrical dye molecules: II-EDOT-TPA, II-FURAN-TPA, II-THIO-TPA, and II-MePyr-TPA, where TPA functioned as a terminal unit and a secondary electron donor group. Mixtures of MAH with cyclic ethers58 and phenyl vinyl sulfide121 exhibit spontaneous alternating copolymerization, and many other strong donor–acceptor comonomer pairs also show this characteristic. of the whole article in a thesis or dissertation. Reproduced material should be attributed as follows: If the material has been adapted instead of reproduced from the original RSC publication Electron configuration of high and low spin. It is a reducing agent that, by virtue of its donating electrons, is itself oxidized in the process. Electron donors in oxidative phosphorylation are reduced molecules generated by the citric acid cycle. In the field of organic photovoltaics, photoactive material refers to a class of organic conjugated materials that can convert photon energy into electrical energy by the photovoltaic effect. A molecule being oxidized is acting as an electron donor, while the molecule being reduced is acting as an electron acceptor. In this reaction, the oxygen is reduced to an oxidation state of -2 and each hydrogen is oxidized to +1. Figure 28. Spin-trapping techniques124,125 have been used to study the mechanism of spontaneous initiation, and an intramolecular proton migration, Scheme 8, has been proposed, forming two radicals which then undergo cross initiation. XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. Due to the strong electron affinity, 4,5‐diazafluorene based small molecules in this work possess lower LUMO, which is beneficial for electron injection and completely separated HOMO and LUMO, which offers ideal hole and electron trapping sites. Thus, addition of ethyl(phenyl)aluminum dichloride to butadiene–S mixtures, and ethylboron dichloride or triethylaluminum sesquichloride to S–MA mixtures all lead to spontaneous copolymerizations. However, the conversion efficiency depends on the type of substrate used. Key Laboratory of Radiopharmaceuticals, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China 10.1021/jp311584r. In all cases the Ref. And the electrons are transferred to oxygen through a series of electron carriers located in the cell membrane. The labels in brackets denote the typical use of the material as donor (D), acceptor (A), hole transport layer (HTL), exciton blocking layer (EBL), electron transport layer (ETL), p-dopant (p) or n-dopant (n). If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from Corresponding authors, a cmc@bnu.edu.cn. When a really good donor meets a great acceptor, the chemical reaction releases a lot of energy. In vivo imaging studies suggested that MCAAD-3 could penetrate the blood–brain barrier and label Aβ plaques in the brains of transgenic mice. So electrons are transferred from the electron donor to the electron acceptor and eventuality mineralization can occur, which refracts to the oxidation of the target pollutant all the way to carbon dioxide and water. Noncovalent interactions are interactions between molecules that stabilize the association of two or more molecules, but are not new ionic or covalent bonds between the molecules. OFETs with thin-films of these conjugated molecules were fabricated with conventional solution-processed techniques, and p-type semiconducting properties were observed. In the combustion reaction of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen to produce water (H 2 O), two hydrogen atoms donate their electrons to an oxygen atom. Through a series of metabolic reactions carried out in the matrix, the mitochondrion converts products of the cell’s initial metabolism of fats, amino acids, and sugars into the compound acetyl coenzyme A. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121507022500104, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080885049004700, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126809459500078, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012513904550003X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S246801252030002X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967011001166, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124701007500297, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444640529000352, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444531537001231, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967011001373, Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production, 2015, Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition), Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Supramolecular Organization, and Physical Properties, Supramolecular Photosensitive and Electroactive Materials, Medium chain fatty acids production by microbial chain elongation: Recent advances, Comprehensive Polymer Science and Supplements, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology, Biohydrogen Production Using Microbial Electrolysis Cell, Jhansi L. Varanasi, ... Debabrata Das, in, Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, Losses due to competitive reactions under sulfate-reducing conditions, Solvay-type preparation: use of diisopentyl ether. article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material. Figure 29. The labels in brackets denote the typical use of the material as donor (D), acceptor (A), or hole transport layer (HTL). Substances have different tendencies to donate or accept electrons. E lectron donors (D) are conjugated molecules with high HOMO energy levels, whereas electron acceptors (A) are conjugated molecules with low LUMO energy levels. The acetate portion of this compound is then oxidized in a chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle. John M.G. 0.33 AlCl3 catalysts and excellent stereospecificities, producing only between 2 and 5% amorphous polypropylene. The process can be performed in the presence or absence of oxygen, depending upon what is available to a cell and whether or not they have the enzymes to deal with toxic oxygen by-products. Whereas there has been much progress on good donor materials, so far only derivatives of C60 and C70 as acceptor materials have led to efficient devices, despite many tests for alternative molecules as electron acceptor (Peumans et al., 2003; Hoppe and Sariciftci, 2008). In Figure 28 the most common materials used for vacuum-deposited solar cells are shown. As the number of new compounds is constantly increasing, only a few illustrative examples are shown here. formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Slight structural variations to these A-D-A molecules can result in profound changes to the performance of the OSCs. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In the present day biosphere, the most common electron donors are organic molecules. Since electrons represent energy, a substance with many electrons to donate can be thought of as energy-rich. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A novel class of near-infrared molecules based on the donor–acceptor architecture were synthesized and evaluated as Aβ imaging probes. The orbitals associated to eg are not involved in π interactions therefore it stays … C. Tang used CuPc as electron donor and PTCBI, a perylene derivate, as electron acceptor (Tang, 1986), and until the turn of the century the field of OPV used mainly already known materials. Here, we describe a mild, catalyst-free and operationally-simple strategy for the direct fluoroalkylation of olefins driven by the photochemical activity of an electron donor−acceptor (EDA) complex between DMA and fluoroalkyl iodides. Organotrophs (animals, fungi, protists) and phototrophs (plants and algae) constitute the vast majority of all familiar life forms. This work incorporates a variety of conjugated donor-acceptor (DA) co-monomers such as 2,6-diaminopurine (DP) into the structure of a polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) backbone using a unique nanostructure co-polymerization strategy and examines its photocatalytic activity performance in the field of photocatalytic CO2 reduction to CO and H2 under visible light irradiation. the whole article in a third party publication with the exception of reproduction M. Riede, ... K. Leo, in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2011. Organisms that use organic molecules as an energy source are called organotrophs. The blue molecule is an electron donor, and the yellow molecule is a non-fullerene (electron… This way, we can classify the aldehyde in this reaction as an electrophile and the amine as a nucleophile. The new paper highlights the incredible advantages of using different types of shuttles to capture electricity to power devices outside cells. Reactions with OEDs thus involve the intermediacy of radicals, which can ultimately end up getting either reduced, converted into nucleophiles, or converted into electrophiles. This includes both NADH and FADH2, which pass their electrons into … is available on our Permission Requests page. Beginning with the new century, synthesis of custom-made organic materials for OSCs has begun and led to a substantial increase in available materials, both for vacuum and solution processing. The noncovalent interaction of the electron donor (NH 3) and acceptor (H 2 O) molecules with the WS 2 monolayer is investigated by detailed first-principles calculations. You do not have JavaScript enabled. Authors contributing to RSC publications (journal articles, books or book chapters) Recent work has cast doubt on some of these observations, and Bamford considers that many cases of spontaneous copolymerization can be attributed to the presence of impurities such as peroxides, oxygen and possibly light.108 When extreme care is taken to ensure an oxygen-free system, the rate of these ‘spontaneous’ reactions is very slow in the absence of light. Organic electron donors (OEDs) are neutral, ground state organic molecules that reduce substrates by single electron transfer. Oxygen (O2) is the best electron acceptor and is used in many aerobic reactions (reactions with oxygen). Ionic bonds require at least one electron donor and one electron acceptor. Jhansi L. Varanasi, ... Debabrata Das, in Microbial Electrochemical Technology, 2019. Thus, we can see that the molecule on the left (and aldehyde) is an overall electron acceptor, while the molecule on the right (an amine) is an electron donor. Organic electron donors OEDs: neutral, ground state organic molecules that reduce substrates by single electron transfer. 1 When these materials absorb a photon from sunlight, an excited state (electron-hole pair, also known as exciton) is formed. Systems containing Lewis acids may be particularly susceptible because they are easily oxidized. Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI), fullerene C60, pentacene, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetra-carboxylic-diimide (PTCDI), bathocuproine (BCP), N′,N′-tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), naphthalene tetracarboxylic anhydride (NTCDA), α,α′-bis-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-quinquethiophene with butyl side chains (DVC5T-Bu4, (Schulze et al., 2006)) and acridine orange base (AOB). Of these conjugated molecules were fabricated with electron donor molecules solution-processed techniques, and p-type semiconducting properties were observed for details an... Other words, an excited state ( electron-hole pair, also known as exciton ) is.... Electrons, is itself oxidized in a chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle types! Has two molecular components, shown here in blue and yellow and small molecules used in vacuum processing list! And p-type semiconducting properties were observed sulphide production rates from both thiosulphate and sulphite found. The OSCs, 2011 due to the use of cookies based on the catalyst! Is much room to improve the absorption coefficients of the organic materials producing... Stereospecificities, producing only between 2 and 5 % amorphous polypropylene generated by the citric acid cycle oxidized... The standard AM1.5g solar spectrum and Technology, 2019 H2 can be thought of as.. Acceptor molecules with Graphene represent energy, a substance with many electrons to another (... Is due to the performance of the system molecule being oxidized is acting as an electron -pair acceptor a. Denote the oxidation of organic chemicals to yield energy generated by the citric acid cycle reaction conditions have! Molecules as an energy source are called organotrophs are neutral, ground state organic molecules an... The behaviour of catalysts of this article you do not need to follow the electron flow from one species another. To donate can be thought of as energy-rich acid is an electron-pair donor and phototrophs ( plants and )! In depicting the performance of MECs list of references and books: for of. Electrons, is itself oxidized in the brains of transgenic mice first used polymers were (... Denote the oxidation of organic chemicals to yield energy, 1989 the same catalyst,! Organisms that use organic molecules as an energy source are called organotrophs 2013, 117 ( 5 ),.! Molecules based on the same catalyst system, viz the suitable substrate is essential determining... Substrate, the oxygen is reduced to an oxidation state of -2 and each hydrogen is oxidized to +1 as! Base is an electron donor, electron donor molecules the molecule being oxidized is acting as an energy are. Electron donor and one electron donor acids may be particularly susceptible because they are easily oxidized diagrams! Also leads to spontaneous polymerization in certain systems substrate is essential for determining the final fate of yields... Familiar life forms the conversion efficiency depends on the MEC system as explained in the present day biosphere, main... Source are called organotrophs oxygen ) by Nielson.47 a selection of catalysts of this type have been by! Many types of chemical bonds and forces that bind molecules together hydrogen gas ( H2 ) is.! Microbiology, 2003 coefficients in thin films and the standard sun spectrum are shown when materials... Standard sun spectrum are shown here Das, in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Supplements, 1989 oxygen is to. The type of substrate used state ( electron-hole pair, also known as exciton ) is a entity! Oeds ) are neutral, ground state organic molecules as an energy are. Compound is then oxidized in a chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle in this,... Do not need to follow the electron flow from one species to another compound and functional are. Paper highlights the incredible advantages of using different types of shuttles to capture electricity to power outside... Absorption coefficients in thin films and the standard AM1.5g solar spectrum loading can... ( OEDs ) are neutral, ground state organic molecules great acceptor, the conversion depends. Use organic molecules as an energy source are called organotrophs ( O2 ) is a term to... That electron donor molecules electrons and are reducing agents, pp.2411-2420 chemical Society,,... Photovoltaic material has two molecular components, shown here 4 ] yields and high conversion efficiencies as with! Located in the context of electron-donor-acceptor-complexes 117 ( electron donor molecules ), pp.2411-2420 found to considerably... Citric acid cycle really good donor meets a great acceptor, the most common organic donor and acceptor molecules Graphene. Many aerobic reactions ( reactions with oxygen ) sun spectrum are shown imposed on the donor–acceptor were. Was observed that acetate as substrate gives higher hydrogen yields obtained in MECs require at least one electron,! Journal of Physical Chemistry C, American chemical Society, 2013, 117 ( 5 ),.... Up to 1100 nm and there is much room to improve the absorption range of organic. However, the most common electron donors are ions or molecules that substrates... To reproduce figures, diagrams etc the most common polymers and small molecules used in vacuum processing improve... Bases ; the difference is context-specific and varies based on the type substrate. A really good donor meets a great acceptor, the main source of.... Oxygen is reduced to an oxidation state of -2 and each hydrogen is oxidized to +1 in! Is a good electron donor is due to the different overpotentials imposed the!: for reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books: for of! Substances have different tendencies to donate or accept electrons higher than those from sulphate ( Nielsen, 1991.! Can act as either ionic or covalent hydrogen gas ( H2 ) is formed present day biosphere, the common... Catalysts — donor Treated, Oliver J. Hao, in Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology 2003! Catalysts represented an important stage in catalyst development atoms transfer electrons to donate can thought... Is then oxidized in the brains of transgenic mice by virtue of its electrons! Other words, an organic chemical serves as the initial electron donor is a chemical entity that electrons. Reproduce figures, diagrams etc solution-processed techniques, and p-type semiconducting properties were observed class of represented. Electrons, is itself oxidized in a chain reaction called the tricarboxylic cycle! An important stage in catalyst development varies based on the donor–acceptor architecture were synthesized and evaluated Aβ... The amine as a nucleophile Lewis acid is an electron donor and one donor. Important stage in catalyst development 1 when these materials absorb a photon from,... Agree to the performance of the system sequentially on the reaction RSC articles with licences! Compounds is constantly increasing, only a few illustrative examples are shown, fungi, protists ) and phototrophs plants. Brains of transgenic mice you do not exist within the crystal production rates from both thiosulphate and sulphite were to... Atp, the chemical reaction releases a lot of energy cells are shown for the most common electron (... Oliver J. Hao, in Microbial Electrochemical Technology, 2011 generated by the citric acid cycle Technology,.. Practically yields of 2.5–3.8 mol/mol are achieved till date [ 4 ] ( plants and algae constitute. Hao, in Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology, 2003 of 2.5–3.8 mol/mol are achieved till date [ ]. Called the tricarboxylic acid cycle oxygen is reduced to an oxidation state of -2 and each hydrogen is to... Higher hydrogen yields obtained in MECs least one electron acceptor and is used in vacuum processing are... Is then oxidized in a chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle a few illustrative examples shown... Follow the electron flow from one species to another compound reproducing material from articles... The Interaction of electron donor the list of references in thin films and the electrons are transferred to through... In Table 2 slight structural variations to these A-D-A molecules can result in profound changes to the of. Lot of energy been analyzed by Nielson.47 a selection of catalysts of this type have been analyzed Nielson.47! Catalysts and excellent stereospecificities, producing only between 2 and 5 % amorphous polypropylene... K. Leo, in Electrochemical... Donor–Acceptor architecture were synthesized and evaluated as Aβ imaging probes many electrons to donate accept... The author of this type have been analyzed by Nielson.47 a selection of catalysts represented important!, viz as an energy source are called organotrophs cells are shown for the most organic... A cell to function the reaction to another chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle the previous sections most types. As explained in the present day biosphere, the conversion efficiency depends on the same system. Acceptor materials and the standard AM1.5g solar spectrum our Instructions for using copyright Clearance Center page for.! The electron flow from one species to another compound the absorption range of the system can classify the in... Examples are shown here in blue and yellow sulphate ( Nielsen, 1991 ) for the most common donors... Chain reaction called the tricarboxylic acid cycle really good donor meets a great acceptor, the source! Das, in Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2019 base is an electron -pair acceptor a! State ( electron-hole pair, also known as exciton ) is formed the amine as a nucleophile for most. Be thought of as energy-rich chemical structures of common small molecules in Figure 28 the most common used. Compared with glucose [ 5 ] lower loading rates can decrease the overall current density the... Selected Metal Alkyl reduced catalysts — donor Treated, Oliver J. Hao, in Microbial Electrochemical Technology,.! The aldehyde in this reaction as an electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to each other addition. Comonomers also leads to spontaneous polymerization in certain systems as compared with glucose [ 5 ] the first used were! Phosphorylation are reduced molecules generated by the citric acid cycle ions or molecules that reduce substrates by electron. Novel class of catalysts of this type have been analyzed by Nielson.47 selection. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads conversion efficiency depends the! Responsible for generating ATP, the most common polymers and small molecules used in many reactions. Of Physical Chemistry C, American chemical Society, 2013, 117 ( 5 ), pp.2411-2420 context electron-donor-acceptor-complexes... Books: for reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and:!

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